Producers struggle to regulate cow size

 

Teresa Clark for The Fence Post

January 3, 2019

 

Determining what size of cow is ideal for the environment is a hot topic. It depends on the environment, the ranch, and sometimes the rancher. What is even harder is settling on a certain size of cow, and maintaining it.

 

University of Wyoming Extension Rangeland Specialist Derek Scasta shared a story about his grandfather's struggles to maintain cow size in his own herd. "What we have is a lot of information to go through," Scasta told producers during the recent Southeast Wyoming Beef Production convention. "When my grandfather would go to a bull sale, he was looking for EPDs for low birth weight and higher weaning weight, but he may have ignored the maternal traits, and then kept the higher end of the heifer calves for replacements," he said. The result over time was larger cows.

 

Looking at the bull's maternal EPDs will indicate how the heifer calves will look, Scasta said. The bull may have had a positive EPD for milk and mature size, producing larger daughters. "That is why you really need to sort through the bull catalog and look at those EPDs," he said.

 

400 POUNDS

 

In 1975, the average beef cow in the U.S. weighed 1,000 pounds, which became the range management standard for calculating animal unit months. However, recent data suggests the average beef cow now weighs 1,400 pounds. "In 2010, 16 percent of the U.S. beef cows were more than 1,500 pounds," Scasta said. "That's millions of beef cows that weigh more than 1,500 pounds on range and pasture in the U.S."

 

Despite a more than 400 pound increase in cow size in the last 40 years, Scasta said no evidence exists to suggest that increase has resulted in weaning larger calves. "We have enhanced the production and performance potential of cows, but we may not be realizing that in terms of calf weaning weight," he said.

 

The EPD for yearling weight has increased 100 pounds in the Angus breed, which basically shows ranchers have been selecting for growth in cattle. In 1985, the average carcass weight was 725 pounds, and in 2015, it was 892 pounds, which is 165 pounds larger. "Cattle are basically 20 percent heavier than 35 years ago, and 10 percent heavier than 15 years ago," he said.

 

With that amount of growth has come some negatives in relation to animal welfare. Cattle pots were originally designed to haul smaller cattle. "With these bigger cattle, a lot of them will bump their back going into that lower deck, which leaves a bruise on their back leading to a cut out. It is costing the industry $35 million a year because the cattle are bigger today than what the trailers were originally designed for," Scasta said.

 

RANGE IMPACT ...

 

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